ExtraStiftelsen Helse og Rehabilitering

ExtraStiftelsen Helse og Rehabilitering er en norsk stiftelse som eier og fordeler overskuddet fra sjansespillet Extra, som driftes og markedsføres av Norsk Tipping gjennom en avtale siden mars 1996. Overskuddet går til frivillige organisasjoners helseprosjekter.

ExtraStiftelsen har 31 medlemsorganisasjoner. Den ble stiftet i 1994 under navnet Helse og Rehabilitering. Stiftelsen ble opprettet av Den Norske Kreftforening, Nasjonalforeningen for folkehelsen og Norges Blindeforbund.

Siden 2012 har Hans Christian Lillehagen vært generalsekretær i ExtraStiftelsen.

ExtraStiftelsen er Norges største pengeutdelende stiftelse. Alle godkjente organisasjoner kan søke om midler. Tildeling av midler fra overskuddet finner sted én gang i året, i slutten av november. Søknadsfrist er 15. juni hvert år.

Siden oppstart har over 6743 prosjekter fått støtte, på totalt 3,6 milliarder kroner.

I 2014 delte stiftelsen ut 238 millioner kroner til over 600 prosjekter i regi av 107 organisasjoner.

Stiftelsen gir ut Extra-bladet, som kommer to til fire ganger i året i et opplag på 3 300. Det sendes gratis til organisasjoner, prosjektledere, media, politikere og andre som ønsker å motta bladet. Det kan også lastes ned på ExtraStiftelsens nettsider.

Definable real number

Definable real numbers are those that can be uniquely specified by a description. The description may be expressed as a construction or as a formula of a formal language. For example, the positive square root of 2,







2






{\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}


, can be defined as the unique positive solution to the equation






x



2




=


2




{\displaystyle x^{2}=2}


, and it can be constructed with a compass and straightedge.

Different notions of description give rise to different notions of definability. Specific varieties of definable numbers include the constructible numbers of geometry, the algebraic numbers, and the computable numbers.

One way of specifying a real number uses geometric techniques. A real number r is a constructible number if there is a method to construct a line segment of length r using a compass and straightedge, beginning with a fixed line segment of length 1.

Each positive integer, and each positive rational number, is constructible. The positive square root of 2 is constructible. However, the cube root of 2 is not constructible; this is related to the impossibility of doubling the cube.

A real number r is called an algebraic number if there is a polynomial p(x), with only integer coefficients, so that r is a root of p, that is, p(r)=0. Each algebraic number can be defined individually using the order relation on the reals. For example, if a polynomial q(x) has 5 roots, the third one can be defined as the unique r such that q(r) = 0 and such that there are two distinct numbers less than r for which q is zero.

All rational numbers are algebraic, and all constructible numbers are algebraic. There are numbers such as the cube root of 2 which are algebraic but not constructible.

The algebraic numbers form a subfield of the real numbers. This means that 0 and 1 are algebraic numbers and, moreover, if a and b are algebraic numbers, then so are a+b, ab, ab and, if b is nonzero, a/b.

The algebraic numbers also have the property, which goes beyond being a subfield of the reals, that for each positive integer n and each algebraic number a, all of the nth roots of a that are real numbers are also algebraic.

There are only countably many algebraic numbers, but there are uncountably many real numbers, so in the sense of cardinality most real numbers are not algebraic. This nonconstructive proof that not all real numbers are algebraic was first published by Georg Cantor in his 1874 paper „On a Property of the Collection of All Real Algebraic Numbers“.

Specific examples of non-algebraic numbers, which are called transcendental numbers, include π and Euler’s number e.

A real number is a computable number if there is an algorithm that, given a natural number n, produces a decimal expansion for the number accurate to n decimal places. This notion was introduced by Alan Turing in 1936.

The computable numbers include the algebraic numbers along with many transcendental numbers including π and e. Like the algebraic numbers, the computable numbers also form a subfield of the real numbers, and the positive computable numbers are closed under taking nth roots for each positive n.

Not all real numbers are computable. The entire set of computable numbers is countable, so most reals are not computable. Specific examples of noncomputable real numbers include the limits of Specker sequences, and algorithmically random real numbers such as Chaitin’s Ω numbers.

Another notion of definability comes from the formal theories of arithmetic, such as Peano arithmetic. The language of arithmetic has symbols for 0, 1, the successor operation, addition, and multiplication, intended to be interpreted in the usual way over the natural numbers. Because no variables of this language range over the real numbers, a different sort of definability is needed to refer to real numbers. A positive real number a is definable in the language of arithmetic (or arithmetical) if its Dedekind cut can be defined as a predicate in that language; that is, if there is a first-order formula φ in the language of arithmetic, with two free variables, such that

The second-order language of arithmetic is the same as the first-order language, except that variables and quantifiers are allowed to range over sets of naturals. A real that is second-order definable in the language of arithmetic is called analytical.

Every computable real number is arithmetical, and the arithmetical numbers form a subfield of the reals, as do the analytical numbers. Every arithmetical number is analytical, but not every analytical number is arithmetical. Because there are only countably many analytical numbers, most real numbers are not analytical, and thus also not arithmetical.

Every computable number is arithmetical, but not every arithmetical number is computable. For example, the limit of a Specker sequence is an arithmetical number that is not computable.

The definitions of arithmetical and analytical reals can be stratified into the arithmetical hierarchy and analytical hierarchy. In general, a real is arithmetical if and only if its Dedekind cut is at level






Δ




1




0






{\displaystyle \Delta _{1}^{0}}


of the arithmetical hierarchy, one of the lowest levels. Similarly, the reals with arithmetical Dedekind cuts form the lowest level of the analytical hierarchy.

A real number a is first-order definable in the language of set theory, without parameters, if there is a formula φ in the language of set theory, with one free variable, such that a is the unique real number such that φ(a) holds in the standard model of set theory (see Kunen 1980, p. 153). This notion cannot be expressed as a formula in the language of set theory.

All analytical numbers, and in particular all computable numbers, are definable in the language of set theory. Thus the real numbers definable in the language of set theory include all familiar real numbers such as 0, 1, π, e, et cetera, along with all algebraic numbers.

Because the notion of definability in the language of set theory cannot itself be expressed in the language of set theory, the set of real numbers definable in the language of set theory may not form a set. However, assuming they do form a set, the real numbers definable in the language of set theory over a particular model of ZFC form a field.

Each set model M of ZFC set theory that contains uncountably many real numbers must contain real numbers that are not definable within M (without parameters). This follows from the fact that there are only countably many formulas, and so only countably many elements of M can be definable over M. Thus, if M has uncountably many real numbers, we can prove from „outside“ M that not every real number of M is definable over M.

This argument becomes more problematic if it is applied to class models of ZFC, such as the von Neumann universe (Hamkins 2010). The argument that applies to set models cannot be directly generalized to class models in ZFC because the property „the real number x is definable over the class model N“ cannot be expressed as a formula of ZFC. Similarly, the question whether the von Neumann universe contains real numbers that it cannot define cannot be expressed as a sentence in the language of ZFC. Moreover, there are models of ZFC in which all real numbers, all sets of real numbers, functions on the reals, etc. are definable (Hamkins, Linetsky & Reitz 2013).

Büßereis

Als Büßereis, Büßerschnee oder Zackenfirn (englisch Snow Penitents oder Ice Penitents, spanisch Nieve de los Penitentes) werden bis 6 m hohe Schnee- und Eispyramiden in Hochgebirgen der Tropen und Subtropen (u. a. den Anden) bezeichnet. Auf dem Khumbu-Gletscher am Mount Everest wurden bis 30 Meter hohe Ice Penitents beobachtet.

Verursacht wird Büßerschnee durch ungleichmäßige Abschmelzung (Ablation) bei starker direkter Sonnenstrahlung und geringer Luftfeuchtigkeit in der randtropisch-subtropischen Trockenzone. Die Spitzen der Schneepyramiden zeigen Richtung Mittagssonne. Für Bergsteiger stellt diese Art von Gletscher- und Firnfeldoberfläche in der Regel eine unüberwindbare Schwierigkeit dar.

Der Entstehungsprozess beginnt vermutlich durch kleine Vertiefungen im Schnee. An deren Boden trifft mehr reflektiertes Licht auf als anderswo, wodurch sie sich schneller vertiefen als ihre höher gelegenen Ränder. Der Effekt wird möglicherweise in Klimaten verstärkt, in denen der Taupunkt unter dem Gefrierpunkt liegt und gleichzeitig starke Sonneneinstrahlung vorherrscht. Dort kann Schnee an den Spitzen der Schneespitzen nicht schmelzen, sondern allenfalls durch Sublimation abgetragen werden. In den windgeschützten Vertiefungen ist es hingegen feuchter und somit der Taupunkt höher, sodass das Eis schmelzen kann. Da für Sublimation mehr Sonnenenergie nötig ist als für bloßes Schmelzen, schreitet der Vertiefungsprozess dort schneller voran als an den Spitzen.

Der Begriff Büßerschnee wurde von dem Maler und Alpinisten Rudolf Reschreiter geprägt, der auf einer Expedition zum Chimborazo und Cotopaxi erstmals dieses Phänomen beschrieb und malte. Die geneigten Zacken erinnerten ihn an Büßer mit gesenktem Kopf und gebeugtem Rücken.

Zackenfirn gibt es möglicherweise auch in der Äquatorregion von Europa, einem der vier galileischen Monde. Dies deuten zumindest Radarmessungen an.

Urt

Urt er en fellesbetegnelse for en rekke plantearter, men i hovedsak planter som brukes til mat, smakstilsetninger, medisiner eller parfymeer. Botanisk er det planter som produserer en stengel som ikke er vedaktig, og som formerer seg med frø og dør tilbake (visner om vinteren) etter endt vekstsesong. Urter kan imidlertid være både ett- og flerårige planter. Noen er giftige, mens andre kan være spiselige.

Begrepet «urteaktig» brukes om plantedeler uten vedaktig stengel og om unge planteskudd hvor stengelen ennå ikke har blitt vedaktig. Også planter som danner feltsjiktet i en skog og er lavere enn 30 cm kalles ofte urter innen vegetasjonsøkologien.

Statens legemiddelverk klassifiserer alle urter som legemidler, med unntak av de som blir klassifisert som handelsvare i den såkalte «urtelisten» i Forskrift om legemiddelklassifisering. Noen urter er reseptpliktige.

Горячев, Порфирий Владимирович

конструктор вооружений

23 февраля 1908(1908-02-23)

26 сентября 1997(1997-09-26) (89 лет)

Коломна

Порфирий Владимирович Горячев (23.02.1908, с. Лапино Московской губернии, ныне Ногинского района МО — 26.09.1997, Коломна) — советский конструктор вооружений.

Образование: в 1926 г. окончил школу 2 ступени (10 классов) со специальным промышленным уклоном.

Работал чертежником в Вичугском горкомхозе (1925—1927), руководителем группы на Ленинградском заводе № 7 (1927—1941) и в НИИ-13 г. Молотов (1941—1942).

В 1942—1968 гг. в СКБ НКВ (КБМ, Коломна), последняя должность — начальник отдела.

Ведущий конструктор по созданию универсального хода к 120-мм полковому миномету, универсальной лыжной волокуши для минометов калибром 82 мм. Один из конструкторов средств для транспортировки тяжелых минометов, безоткатных орудий Б-10 и Б-11.

Автор 15 изобретений.

Лауреат Сталинской премии 2 степени (1951).

Награждён орденом Отечественной войны II степени (1945).

Keelaperumpallam

Keelaperumpallam is a village panchayat situated on the south bank of the Kaveri River in Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu. The village name is a combination of three Tamil words: the first keela denote east side to MelaPerumPallam, the second part perum denotes big, and the last part pallam means pit. Another story is related to the ValamPuriNathar Shiva. The shiva have a one small V-shaped pit on his head so these two adjacent villages are called with pallam.

The Naganathar shiva temple is famous for Navagraha workship of kethu. It is located on the south bank of Cauvery River near the Bay of Bengal. The almighty shiva is called as Naganatha and goddess called Soundaryanayaki.

The above shiva temple also called as Keelaperumpallam Kethu temple. The deity Kethu is located north-east of this shiva temple. The Kethu story is related to the churning of Parkadal (milky way) for nectar. Lord Vishnu wanted to distribute the nectar only to devas but asura raghu also received the nectar and swallowed, this incident has been found by sun and moon and reported to Vishu. Vishu beheaded the rahu but he did not die because he swallowed the nectar, then his head is called as Kethu and his body is called as Rahu.

All devotees are request to see the shiva and parvathi first, then go to the kethu which is located on the north east side of the shiva temple. Here kethu is worshipping shiva as well as shiva is a supreme god in this temple, so first worship shiva then do the pooja for kethu.

Only one small motor road connected with DharmaKulam(poompuhar) and Thalachangadu. Few bus service available to this temple but many people using autorisha and car to reach this temple. But you can easily reach DharmaKulam which is located around 2 kilometer away from this temple. Dharmakulam is located near poompuhar beach to mayiladuthurai main road. There is no train service available but you can alight at sirkali or mayilaudthurai railwaystation. You can get more travel and temple information at and travel detail at

List of In Living Color cast members

Cast members came and went during the run of In Living Color. Some earlier cast members continued to appear in later seasons so later casts also include some previous years‘ cast members.

Starring

Featuring

Starring

Featuring

Jim Carrey, Tommy Davidson, David Alan Grier and T’Keyah Crystal Keymáh were the only cast members for all five seasons.

Chris Rock was never an official cast member on In Living Color, but did appear (as a „special guest star“) in a number of skits in the fifth season, and reprised his „Cheap Pete“ character from I’m Gonna Git You Sucka. In the early years of In Living Color, Rock was parodied as being the only African American cast member on Saturday Night Live (SNL also had Tim Meadows). In an SNL skit honoring Mother’s Day, Rock’s mother jokes that she is disappointed in him for being on SNL, and asks „Has In Living Color called yet?“

Other recurring guest stars in the fifth season include Nick Bakay (for The Dirty Dozens sketches) and Peter Marshall (ringmaster for several loopy editions of Hollywood Squares). Rapper Biz Markie also appeared in various roles as a guest star in the fifth season, such as being (not too much) in drag as Wanda the Ugly Woman’s sister or as „Dirty Dozens“ contestant Damian „Foosball“ Franklin.

The Fly Girls troupe had many members over In Living Color‘s five-season run. The original lineup consisted of Cari French, Carrie Ann Inaba, Deidre Lang, Lisa Marie Todd, and Michelle Whitney-Morrison. Rosie Perez was the choreographer for the first four seasons.

Sometimes the Fly Girls could be used as extras in sketches, or be part of an opening gag. In one sketch, they were shown performing open-heart surgery (in the sketch, the girls are dancing in order to pay their way through medical school).

In the fifth season Arthur Rainer became the main choreographer with Lisa Joann Thompson and Deidre Lang as assistant choreographers.

Marcus Charles

Marcus Charles (born November 13, 1973) is an American restaurateur and entrepreneur in Seattle. He is known for fostering and expanding the Capitol Hill Block Party, resurrecting the Crocodile Cafe music venue, and founding Neumos Crystal Ball Reading Room, along with multiple, successful Seattle bars and restaurants. In 2012 he was a recipient of the Puget Sound Business Journal’s „40 Under 40“ award.

In 2013 Charles co-founded Juju Joints with Rick Stevens of Seattle. Juju Joints are disposable electronic joints (e-joints) pre-loaded with cannabis oil and THC and allow for discreet, odorless consumption of cannabis. Juju Joints launched in Washington cannabis dispensaries in April 2014. Stevens, a 30-year tobacco industry veteran, developed the technology for the innovative e-joint, alongside Charles.

Politically active in local and national campaigns, Charles immersed himself in the 2012 elections, simultaneously supporting Democratic incumbent President Barack Obama in the presidential race, and Washington State gubernatorial Republican candidate Rob McKenna. Charles voiced his political opinions in various interviews with Seattle publications including The Stranger.

Đurađ II Balšić

Đurađ Stracimirović (Serbian Cyrillic: Ђурађ Страцимировић; fl. 1385 – April 1403), or Đurađ II was the Lord of Zeta from 1385 to 1403, as a member of the Balšić noble family. He was the son of Stracimir Balšić, and succeeded his paternal uncle Balša II in ruling Zeta. He reigned from 1386 up to 1389 in the still officially undissolved Serbian Empire in the form of a family alliance, then up to 1395 as an Ottoman vassal. He ruled until his death in 1403, when he was succeeded by his only son, Balša III. He is known in Serbian epic poetry as Banović Strahinja.

His father was Stracimir, one of the three Balšić brothers who came to rule Zeta in the 1360s. His mother was Milica Mrnjavčević (Jerina), the daughter of Serbian King Vukašin Mrnjavčević.

On 18 September 1385, Đurađ’s uncle Balša II was killed at the Battle of Savra, while fighting the Ottomans. Following the temporary rule under Balša II’s widow Komnena and daughter Ruđina, Đurađ II inherited parts of Zeta and northern Albania, including the cities of Scutari, Drivast and Lezhë, as per the Balšićs‘ traditional rule of seniority, as „self-holder to the Zeta and Coast land“. Đurađ II had his seat at Ulcinj, which also became the family seat. The remainder of the Balšić possessions, in southern Albania, passed in 1391 from Ruđina to her spouse Mrkša Žarković, the son of Žarko, Emperor Dušan’s nobleman. The protovestijar Philip Bareli, the Venetian trader that handled Balša’s financing, who was succeeded by Đurađ, is also mentioned as holding estates.

According to Mavro Orbini, when Đurađ II started his rule, „the tribes of Upper Zeta and the Crnojević did not want to recognize him, answering that they were under the Bosnian King Tvrtko“.

Đurađ had succeeded leadership in the heats of disarray. Pal Dukagjini broke off allegiance to Đurađ, taking Lezhë and the Drin area.[citation needed] Finally the Jonima family seceded with their own lands between Durrës and the Drin, causing Đurađ to lose his very last possessions in Albania. Before even consolidating rule, Karlo Thopia conquered Durrës and assigned it to his son George, Nikola Sakat, the castellan of Budva, and his brother Andrija seceded the city after 1386 and Vuk Branković took Peć and Prizren. Đurađ asked Dukagjini for an advice, and according to it, he had the Sakat brothers imprisoned and blinded. In the Zeta plains themselves under Lovćen, Đurađ had constant conflicts with the opposing ruler of Upper Zeta, Radič Crnojević, whose family had just come to prominence. The area of Onogošt (Nikšić) seceded to the Venetians. In a short time, Đurađ’s demesne had diminished into a small strip of land between Lake Skadar and the Adriatic Sea. Upon proclaiming himself the sole head of the Balšić family, he issued an official edict on 28 January 1386 in Scutari, calling his reign’s strength upon „..the prayers and martyrs of my holy forefathers Symeon, the Nemanya, the first Serbian Myhrr-flowing, and Sava the Saint“ of his kin. In it he also stated that the laws of the Serbian lords, his predecessors Stracimir, Đurađ and Balša, and in specific of Emperor Dušan, shall remain and be valid for his reign. It was a standard remark of the ruler’s calling upon divine right and inspired by the heritage of the Serbian Medieval state, now in feudal disarray. Mladen Ilić, logotet Butko and vojvoda Nikola were witnesses in the edict.

From the start of his reign, Đurađ faced the potential threat from the powerful expansionist Ottoman Empire. To strengthen political links, he married Jelena (b. 1368), daughter of the Serbian Moravian lord Lazar Hrebeljanović, after recognizing Lazar as his sovereign in 1386. The folklore has recorded that Đurađ was at war with Prince Lazar for three times before a peaceful union was achieved, although there is no historical confirmation. Prince Lazar aimed at maintaining the heritage of the dispersing Serbian Empire. Đurađ, Lazar, and Lord Vuk Branković of Kosovo formed a family alliance to govern the renewed Serbian realm, presided over by Lazar. The three also shared the annual tax paid to Serbian lords by the Republic of Ragusa. Each member retained some autonomy, however, as can be seen through Đurađ’s styling of himself as „I, Balšić in Christ the Lord, Đurađ, pious and autocratic lord of the lands of Zeta and the coast.“ Edicts for the realm were issued commonly by all three lords, extending Serbia to some form of a level of a Triarchy, or even Diarchy, considering Vuk’s considerably subordinate status to Lazar.

Đurađ also maintained diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire. Đurađ owes his position and everlasting presence on the scene to his political cunningness. He succeeded the traditional rivalry between his family and Bosnian-Serbian King Tvrtko I Kotromanić, whose Serbian crown the Balšićs did not recognize, most probably because of their own claims to the Serbian throne1. On his diplomatic initiative, the Ottomans invaded Bosnia in 1386. During a second attack, Đurađ even sent his own troops to support the Ottoman Beylerbey of Rumelia Lala Şâhin Paşa at the Battle of Bileća on 27 August 1388, where he suffered a defeat to the hands of Bosnian Duke Vlatko Vuković Kosača. This led to the suspicion that Đurađ was an Ottoman vassal. The Ragusan Republic was weary of this Ottoman expansion, so they wanted to negotiate with Đurađ some military protection. On 23 August 1388 Đurađ sent his envoy Žanin Bareli, Filip’s son.

Legends record Đurađ running with his forces to join the Serbian allied forces at the 1389 Battle of Kosovo and returning after he heard the news about the fall; however this is very improbable if his links to the Ottomans in that period are accounted for. The Epic telling records „Baoš“ coming late on the 3rd day to the Kosovo Field after the battle and how he was furious at the alleged traitor „Duke Vukan Branković“. Also the wrong daughter of „Emperor Lazar“, Olivera Despina, was remembered as married to Đurađ2. Most historians and scholars identify him as the Serbian Epic hero Banović Strahinja, due to the close similarities in name and characteristics. In any case, after the Battle of Kosovo, the Serbian Alliance crumbled and the last remains of the Serbian Empire dispersed, leaving Đurađ completely on his own.

In 1390 Vuk Branković sent envoys to Zeta and offered 500 liters of silver to Philip Bareli to hand over last Đurađ’s bastion, the City of Ulcinj. Fearing the occasion, Đurađ had him immediately imprisoned together with his children.

During his rule, Đurađ, like his predecessors, tried to find an effective modus vivendi for extending his rule over the City of Kotor. As the richest and most economically developed city on the southern Adriatic coast close to Zeta, it fueled the rivalry between King Tvrtko and Đurađ. For these reasons no friendship between the two was created, even after peaceful relations were concluded in early 1389 on mediation of the Republic of Ragusa. When Tvrtko died in the beginning of March 1391, the opportunity arose for Đurađ and he subsequently seized Kotor.

From the start of Đurađ’s reign he had to face with the outlaw of his cousin Konstantin, administrator of the lands in the rivers of Bojana and Drin, who didn’t accept his supremacy in the Balšićs‘ lands. It is believed that Filip Bareli had connections with Konstantin, so he was convicted for committing the highest felony, a „crime against Đurađ’s authority“ and all of his plentiful property was confiscated by Đurađ. Konstantin went into Ottoman service and since 1390 under protection of Sultan Bayezid I actively worked to seize power as the Head Balšić. As a result, Đurađ came into fierce opposition to the Ottomans in 1391, converted to Catholicism, and promised his lands in heritage to Pope Boniface IX in the case of no heir apparent.[citation needed] Clearly siding with the Christian coalition under the legal Papal States in conflict with the Avignonese Antipope Clement VII, Đurađ took the side of Louis II of Anjou in his war against Ladislaus of Naples. But the broader plans for organizing a crusade against Turks have remained but a dream.

Đurađ received a border with the Ottoman Empire as they took the lands of Vuk Branković in 1392. For opposition to Turkish influence in the region, the Sultan sent an army to invade his lands in May 1392. At the same time in the heat of fighting his competitors Radič Crnojević and Konstantin Balšić, Đurađ was forced to negotiate with the Ottomans for peace terms. In order to protect his wife Jelena from the Ottoman danger Đurađ decided to send her to Dubrovnik in June 1392. He negotiated with Pasha Yiğit Bey, sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Skopje, but the talks were fruitless as the Ottoman demanded half of all his territories around Zeta, including his seat of Ulcinj. In addition to that, in late 1392 the bey managed to capture Đurađ in a battle and released him only after the ransom was paid. When Đurađ was in captivity Radič Crnojević captured his lands around Kotor and proclaimed himself Lord of Zeta and Budva. His wife Jelena was making moves to free him, with the help of the Venetian Republic, but they all reached a moot end. One of the main reasons for that was that his opponent Radič Crnojević expanded his reign vastly and became a Venetian vassal in November 1392. The possibility of this was Đurađ’s reluctance to release Philip Bareli, a Venetian citizen, despite many pleas from the Republic. In the heat of struggle amongst feudal lords in Zeta, Philip managed in 1392 to flee from his prison to Durrës, coming into John Thopia’s service. On the other side King Stjepan Dabiša dispatched Bosnian Duke Sandalj Hranić from the Hum to take over Đurađ’s lands and further agitate Radič Crnojević.

Having no other choice, Đurađ handed over to bey Şâhin the cities of Scutari and Drivast and the Forum of Sveti Srđ on the Bojana River to the Turks, as well as agreed to pay annual taxes in exchange for his release. Ottoman squadrons occupied the locations in early 1393. The same year he tried to claim his old Lezhë which was just handed over by the Dukagjinis to the Venetians, but Radič’s support of Venetian control proved crucial. Seeing the necessity of Venetian support, he managed to get accepted into its citizenry in May 1395. Đurađ did not rest for long, and already in October 1395 he broke the deal while the Ottomans were at war against the Hungarians and Wallachians, restored Scutari and Sveti Srđ and even defeated his rival Konstantin by seizing his stronghold of Danj, with Venetian assistance. To keep his cities safe, Đurađ relied upon the rivalry between Turkey and Venice. He handed over the cities into Venetian administration. When Ottoman advances obviously came to a halt, the Venetians decided to negotiate the deal. In April 1396 a contract was signed. Đurađ handed over Scutari, the Skadar Lake with all its islands and Sveti Srđ to Venetian administration, as well as agreed to channel the income from tolls in Danj, in exchange for 1,000 ducats every year. He also promised to give the cities support in case of a Turkish attack and was accepted into Venetian nobility. The whole act was typical for weak lords facing the mighty Ottoman Empire in the coastline of the western Balkans. Đurađ remained to rule directly just a small territory west of the Bojana river with Bar and Ulcinj as the only cities.

In 1396 Koja Zakarija from the Sakat family came to power in northern Albania centered in Danj, independently from Đurađ.

At the end of April 1396, Radič and his brother Dobrivoje Crnojević had made a significant move against Đurađ. They took Grbalj and laid siege to Kotor. Đurađ became disliked by the Orthodox Serb commonfolk, so the excessively Orthodox religious Crnojevićs‘ takeover was looked upon nicely by the people, resulting in Paštrovićs‘ cross to Radič’s side. In May 1396 they moved to battle Đurađ himself, however Đurađ completely defeated the Crnojevićs and killed Radič, managing to get a hold over a part of the Crnojević domain. Soon a new enemy arose at the west; Bosnian nobleman Sandalj Hranić Kosača seized large parts of land quickly and conquered Budva and Kotor, made a deal with the Paštrovićs, also managing to win Venetian protection, who proclaimed him the legitimate ruler of Budva and Zeta itself. In Upper Zeta the Đurašević subgroup of the Crnojevićs came to prominence, though they made an agreement and joined Đurađ, seeing a common enemy in Duke Sandalj. They aided him in the wars against Sandalj, taking the first fronts by retaking all the lands from Budva to Spič as well as the Churchland of Saint Miholj in the Bay of Kotor, the Serbian Orthodox religious center in Zeta. In December 1396, the Hungarian King Sigismund lost the Battle of Nicopolis. During his return across the sea, he stayed in Đurađ’s lands. To honor Đurađ for his fights against the Ottomans, Sigismund made him Prince of his Dalmatian islands of Hvar and Korčula.

The Most Serene Republic of Venice led an economic policy that soon introduced Venetian monetary domination in the region, fully replacing that of the Balšićs‘, and ever since Spring 1396 clearly showed pretensions to take the remaining lands of Đurađ. The Venetian monopoly introduced by lowering customs and other taxes in Scutari and Drivast greatly diminished the Balšićs‘ income so the relations between the two deteriorated. It is so that in 1399 when in the Venetian-administered Balšić lands the oppressed peasants raised a rebellion, all the guilt was attributed to Đurađ. As a result, in early 1401 Venice ceased paying the annual thousand ducat tribute for the lands. Another reason claimed were the frequent robberies by suspects from Đurađ’s domain of Venetian storehouses of salt in the region, a crucial resource in that time. This caused Đurađ to renew links with the Ottoman Turks again, but wars in Asia Minor have made them impossible to intervene, which finally forced Đurađ to succumb to Venetian demands. As per the new deal, he paid for all the damage done by the robbers and agreed to give free passage and special privileges to Venetian traders, while Venice continued to pay the tribute for the cities. These acts introduced Venetian presence in the region, which would henceforth remain as an important local political factor. In 1402 his long-term Balšić rival Konstantin was killed by Venetian agents in Dyrrhachium under unknown circumstances.

Returning from the Battle of Angora, Đurađ’s brother-in-law, the newly crowned Despot Stefan Lazarević, stayed at his court in the late Summer of 1402. Đurađ prepared him and organized an army to battle his rival Đurađ Branković in Ottoman service at the Battle of Tripolje near Gračanica in November 1402, to help his cousin with all means possible, ending in full victory. In April 1403, Đurađ II Stracimirović died of the injuries suffered in the battle. He was buried in the Church of Saint Catherine in his hometown of Ulcinj, where he still remains. Seventeen-year-old Balša, Đurađ II’s only child, inherited his lands. He ruled with his mother as Chief adviser until she remarried in 1411, to Bosnian Duke Sandalj Hranić from Herzegovina. She gave a significant impact to Zetan foreign policy, tying it strongly with the newly created Serbian Despotate as a former important part of the Empire.

Đurađ continued using the currency of his predecessors, coins forged with the wolf, chest, and shield symbols of the Balšićs, Dinars, used in the lands of the Serbian Empire, though he didn’t mint many new coins, similar to his predecessor, due to continuous weakening of the Balšićs‘ economic power. One of the two versions featured heads of wolves and the Balšićs‘ coat of arms, each with a surrounding inscription: „M.D. GORGI STRACIMIR“ on one side, and „S.STEFAN SCUTARI“ on the other. The other version had the character „M“ next to the coat of arms and the presentations of Balšićs‘ patron Saint Lawrence along with an inscription below him „S LAVRENCIUS M“.

Đurađ founded for the Serbian Orthodox Church a Church of Saint George and the Beška Monastery on the island of Beška in Lake Skadar, near Starčevo. After his death, his wife Jelena expanded it in 1438/1439 with another church, the St Mary’s Church, where she was buried in 1443. The monastery became a significant cultural and spiritual center of the Serbian Church, actively working in scribing and nourishing the Nemanjić heritage. Đurađ’s wife Jelena became a deeply religious and talented poet, writing the opus of then’s Old Serb-Slavic language.

Zec Petawaga

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Canada

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Québec

La zec Petawaga est un territoire de chasse et de pêche situé dans les Laurentides au Québec (Canada), plus spécifiquement dans la région de Mont-Laurier. La zone d’exploitation contrôlée est gérée par l’association chasse et pêche de la région de Mont-Laurier inc. Elle est créée en 1978 et couvre une superficie de 1 186 km2.

La zec Petawaga partage ses limites avec la Zec Lesueur à l’est, la réserve faunique La Vérendrye à l’ouest. Sa limite Est est le réservoir Baskatong. Elle est bornée au nord par le territoire libre s’étendant jusqu’à Clova. La zec compte 314 lacs, dont une centaine sont exploités pour la pêche récréative.

Trajet

À partir de Montréal, les utilisateurs de la zec prennent la route 117 jusqu’à Mont-Laurier, puis la route conduisant à Ferme-Neuve. De là, ils empruntent le chemin de la „montagne du Diable“ (Montée Leblanc/chemin 17 CIP); puis ils suivent les indications (60 km de distance de Ferme-Neuve). L’option B comme itinéraire consiste à prendre la route 117, et tourner à droite au chemin Clova dans le réserve faunique La Vérendrye. Puis suivre les indications routières.

Fondée en 1952, l’Association chasse et pêche de la région de Mont-Laurier inc avait à l’origine l’ensemencement comme raison d’être. Après avoir organisé plusieurs activités à caractère sportif et social dans la région, l’Association a mis en place la Classique Internationale de canot qui attira plus de 15 000 personnes par an.

En 1978, le gouvernement du Québec confia à l’Association le mandat d’administrer la zec Petawaga.

Petawaga provient du mot d’origine algonquine petwewegami, qui « signifie étendue d’eau d’où le bruit vient jusqu’ici ». Il a repris le toponyme du lac Petawaga, qui est situé dans la zec.