Calydon (/ˈkælᵻdɒn/; Greek: Καλυδών; gen.: Καλυδῶνος) was an ancient Greek city in Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles (approx. 11 km) from the sea. Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age.
According to Greek mythology, the city took its name from its founder Calydon, son of Aetolus. Close to the city stood Mount Arakynthos (Zygos), the slopes of which provided the setting for the hunt of the Calydonian Boar.
The city housed the important Aetolian sanctuary known as the Laphrion, dedicated to Artemis Laphria and Apollo Laphrios. It was a prosperous city until the end of the 1st century BC.
In 31 BC, the Roman Emperor Octavian removed the population of the city to the new colony of Nicopolis, founded to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Actium earlier that year. At the same time, the Romans removed most of the art and treasures of the city to Patras, including the gold and ivory cultic statue of Artemis. Strabo, in his Geographia, comments on the former beauty of Calydon, which by his time lay desolate: „…Calydon and Pleuron, which are now indeed reduced, though in early times these settlements were an ornament to Greece.“
Previous and more recent excavations have revealed many buildings including:
Many finds from the site including ancient terracottas from the temple of Artemis are exhibited in the museum of Agrinion and in the Athens museum.